-



> > "NOT BY CHANCE" - : 7, -



" " -




" "




! 13 " "?




? " " !




()


"NOT BY CHANCE" - : 7, -

, " , "NOT BY CHANCE", - 1997. . " , M.I.T . . . , .

" ' "


7. -

' "" "" . "" . , - . . . .

-60 , .., ' [1942] :

, . ...   , ... [pp. 269-70 [.

' [1903] ( , , ):

. . , . ( ).

- (..) , . -. , .

.. , . . . - [Ho and Saunders].

, , ...

" " " " [Cook 1977], 4.

.. . . ,    [1979 Ho and Saunders]. .. (Phyla) (Classes) (Orders). , , . -.

- " ... , - [Kettlewell 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1973].   . .

.. . . . . , , . , .

, . . ' [Simpson 1960]. .. [Glass 1965].

.. . . , [1].

.. . .. . , .     .

, -, -60 . - [Huxley 1943]. .

-. . . . [1950] , .     [1940, 1952] (saltations). . - , . .

- . . -, - [Rensch 1954, 1960; Simpson 1953]. , , . . .

, . -. , "", .. . , , . , (punctuationists) . . .

- "" , . , . , .

.. . , . , .   .. . , . -60 .., . - . - , , .  

,   .. -60 . [Stanley 1979]. [McDonald 1990].   . , , [Gould 1977].

--- "" . ,   . .

- . , - , . --- - . - - . - , . , , . , .   .

  - DNA , , , . - DNA , . :

, 100,00$. . ? , . , . , . !! , 100,000$ ? , , , 50,000$.

, , , .

"" . . ? , , . , " " .

  - , .., . , . " "[2]. - [West-Eberhard 1989].

  Rosen and Buth 1980];[Ho and Saunders 1979, Cook 1977. . [1977] .. , . .

. . , .

. , . 2, . , "" . "" "" ,   . , , , .

, , . , , "" . "" . , "" . " " "".   . , , .

- , - . . -DNA. -DNA.

. 2,   -DNA, . , . . -. - . - DNA.

- , . . -. - , , .

  . - . [3]. . .

. . . , , . , .

, . - -

(1)

(2) .

  .   . - .

-DNA ( 2) . . , . "" (Promoter) "" (Operon) . , . [Darnell et al. 1986]. [Dobzhansky 1951]. , .

,   (Salmonella). (flagella) [Silverman and Simon 1983, Darnell 1986 pp. 441-2, Griffiths et al. 1993 pp. 572-3]. , , . (antigenic).

, . . , "". "". , . .   - , . . , .

. . (Antigen) . . . . , . . ,   . [Griffiths et al. 1993, pp. 571 ff.].

, . , ( transposable genetic elements). . . -1,500 (insertion sequences) - IS. , (transposons) 2,500 -20,000 .

- .   . -IS , , , , -operon ( ). , " ,IS , IS1 -IS5.

(transposon) (IS) . - Tn , Tn1  - Tn903. , . (ampicillin) Tn1, 5,000 . ' (tetracycline) Tn10, - 10,000 . ', ' Tn4, - 20,000 . (plasmid) -DNA . .

1983 - , [McClintock 1978].  ? .

, - , [Wanner 1985]. ' , , - , [Walbot and Cullis 1985].

,   . (E. coli) , , [Hall 1982]. . , . , , , . , . . . , . , .  , . . "" (cryptic).

, . . . 1 -10 18. . , -100,000 , . 40 ! - .

[1988] . ' (salicin), . , - , '. .   . - .

. DNA -IS103 1,400 - -DNA -mRNA.

  ', . IS103   , , IS1 IS5 . - IS103 . -1 -2 10 12, - 2 . ' -10 19.

- .. . .. ,   . . , -60% , '. IS103 ' ( ' ). ' 8 12 89% !

' [Cairns et al. 1988]. . . . , , . - [1943]. , ,

... . . ... . (E. coli) , , . [ ] ... [Cairns et al. 1988].

, . , . [Stahl 1988, Benson 1988].

, . -. . ,   . , -150 . - . , . , , , - , . .

... . .

- . , . , - , [1995 Sniegowski & Lenski]. , ,   [Foster 1992]. Sniegowski & Lenski  [1995] .

, - . , . (E. coli)   [ Rosenberg et al. 1994, Galitski and Roth 1995, Radicella et  al. 1995 ,1994 Foster and Trimarchi]. Culotta [1994] and Shapiro [1995] .

7


-

[1] , - . .

[2] West-Eberhard [1989] .

[3] , . , - .


 
! .










/ .
/ -





, , .