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> > "NOT BY CHANCE" - : 7, -



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"NOT BY CHANCE" - : 7, -

, " , "NOT BY CHANCE", - 1997. . " , M.I.T . . . , .

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7

7

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(finches) . (Fringillidae), (Order) (Passeriformes) . , . "" "". . , .

, , -1,200 " . . . . (systematist) ' . , . 13 . . , . , , . . . [Grant 1986].

  ? ?   ... , . . ? . . :

, - , .

, 4, . ?

. - . , - . , ...

  (Laysan Island) " - . . , , . 1967 - " " (Midway). - ".

  , . 1984, [Conant 1988, Pimm1988]. 1987 -800. 1967 , 20 , , . . , 15 " -, -. - .

- ? . . . , , .

-   . . . . . , .

, . , . [Smith 1987]. . , . , , , . , . , .

, , , . ,   , . , , . .

(Guppies) , [Reznick et al. 1990, Reznick and Bryga 1987]. , . , . 

(alta), . (killifish) . . (Aripo) (Trinidad), , . 200 . . . .

  , . , , . , - , - [Reznick et al. 1977].

. , ? , .

... 4 .. . - .. . - .. , . . - .. . [1925]:

, , .

(Cephalopods) . . . , (Locomotive). , , . , [Packard 1972].

(Plastic) . , . :

, . . , . , . ,   . , [Collier et al. 1973]. [1909] , [Johnston and Gottlieb 1990].

(Gloggers Rule): , [Schreider 1964]. .

' (Jordan's rule): , [Schreider 1964]. [Brooks 1957, 1926 2192Hubbs, Murray and Beacham 1989, Johnston and Gottlieb 1990].

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